A concentration camp established near the city of Weimar in east-central Germany in 1937. The camp initially held primarily political prisoners. After Kristallnacht, some 10,000 Jews were detained here, and other groups were interned at Buchenwald throughout the war. The Buchenwald camp system eventually comprised over 80 subcamps, some of which were operated by private industry with prisoners deployed as forced laborers.

The prisoner population of Buchenwald swelled to c. 112,000 by February 1945, after Jewish prisoners were evacuated in forced marches from Auschwitz and Gross-Rosen in advance of Soviet forces moving westward into German-occupied Poland.

In anticipation of the arrival of Allied forces, prisoners stormed the watchtowers and seized the camp on April 11, 1945. Buchenwald was liberated by U.S. forces that same afternoon.