Munich Agreement

An agreement negotiated by Hitler with British prime minister Neville Chamberlain, French premier Edouard Daladier, and Italian leader Benito Mussolini at a conference in Munich in late September 1938, which authorized Germany to annex the Sudetenland, a largely German-speaking region of Czechoslovakia bordering on Germany.

In order to appease Hitler, who had threatened with war should his demand not be met, British, French and Italian leaders acquiesced to Germany’s claim on the Sudetenland in exchange for assurances that Hitler would seek no further territorial expansion. German troops occupied the Sudetenland the following day, on October 1, 1938, and the government of Czechoslovakia, which had been excluded from the negotiations, resigned. Six months later, Hitler violated the agreement by destroying the Czech state and establishing the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia under Nazi control.

The partition of Czechoslovakia in the wake of the Munich Agreement, 1938-1939

United States Holocaust Memorial Museum