The word originated in Russia in the 19th century and designates violent antisemitic attacks by non-Jewish populations against Jewish communities in Russia and Eastern Europe between 1880 and 1921. Pogroms were sometimes encouraged by the government and local authorities. In November 1938, the Nazi regime incited the Kristallnacht pogrom against Jews throughout the Reich. Pogrom is now used to refer more broadly to waves of violence targeting Jews or other ethnic groups.